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Fermenters are used for growth of anaerobic cells and microorganisms, which allows conversion of energy for use (or respiration) in the absence of oxygen. In research-scale applications, fermenters are used for microbiology studies and pilot experimentation. Industrial-scale fermenters, or bioreactors, are used for propagation of organisms for protein synthesis, or production of chemicals or drugs from chemical precursors. The scale, adaptability, and suitability are important considerations, as well as the requirements involved in breakdown and maintenance.