The global food and agriculture industries are rapidly expanding. Demands for a wider range of products to feed a growing number of consumers continue to escalate. Along with these demands comes the need for advanced food testing technologies and solutions with which to monitor safety and authenticity.
The Food Safety and Testing Interactive Infographic is a living resource, keeping stride with emerging developments in the fast-moving food and beverage industries.
This post serves as a chronology of the infographic, citing ongoing developments in the areas of: Pesticides and Contaminants Testing, Food Profiling and Authenticity, Food Quality Control, Food Borne Illness and Microbial Testing.
Pesticides and Contaminants Testing
Pesticides residue analysis
As food safety regulations change, so do restrictions on the use and maximum residues limits (MRLs) of permissible pesticides. High-resolution LC-MS and GC-MS instrumentation coupled with comprehensive compound profiling and discovery solutions are allowing testing labs to stay ahead of the ever-evolving pesticides residues analysis world.
Biological toxin testing
Toxins originating from fungal growth, food spoilage, food processing, and other sources cause a persistent threat to consumer health and a negative economic impact on the industry. Advanced sample preparation solutions coupled with quadrupole MS technologies are enabling detection of diverse biotoxin markers in complex and varied food matrices.
- 1/2020 – A recent study uncovered the presence of caffeine, dextromethorphan (cough syrup), and alprazolam (Xanax) in donor blood serum by use of a novel sensitive UHPLC-MS method.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can contaminate foods and beverages, taking the form of dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl esters (PBDEs), among others. High-resolution exact mass GC and GC-MS/MS instruments and compound databases are enabling sensitive detection and quantification of known and unknown POP compounds.
Trace element analysis
Trace elements may be present in foods and beverages such as wines and cheeses as a result of cultivation and processing techniques. Trace detection of metal contaminants including arsenic and excess additives such as sulfites is of critical importance to ensure consumer safety. Technologies employing atomic absorption spectroscopy, ICP-MS, ICP-OES, and associated solutions are instilling confidence and integrity in trace analysis of foods.
- 1/2020 – Food metal detectors are gaining in complexity and applicability, with the ability to detect a broad range of metals in raw and packaged foods.
Food Profiling and Authenticity
Next generation food screening and identification
Expanded types and varieties of consumables require a expanded toolset with which to test and screen. Next generation sequencing technologies, including high-throughput digital PCR, are enabling rapid identification of pathogenic bacteria and fungi to ensure food sources are safe before they reach shelves and tables.
- 2/2020 – Methods are in development to detect MOSH/MOAH food contamination from packaging products with greater sensitivity and specificity, including GCxGC and NMR, in addition to LC-GC-FID gold standard techniques.
Organic food confirmation testing
Organic foods are marketed as free from certain plant cultivation and livestock practices and contaminants, including certain fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, antibiotics, etc. These chemicals leave residues which can be screened against using the latest in LC-MS technologies and solutions.
- 1/2020 - Elemental analysis is proving useful for assessment of organic food practices.
- 1/2020 - USDA's National Organic Program (NOP) now requires the use of certified organic flavors in certified organic products whenever they are commercially available.
Genetically modified organism (GMO) testing
GMO crops represent a growing presence in the food production pipeline. The non-GMO label can represent an area of concern that carries a premium up-charge to consumers. Advanced PCR technologies are being used to confirm the presence of identifying genetic elements which may distinguish GMO from non-GMO foods.
- 1/2020 – Gene editing CRISPR technologies offer significant advantages over current transgenesis techniques which produce GMO-labeled food products.
- 2/2020 – A recent study examined public perceptions of gene-edited crops and the effects of scientific awareness on attitudes and acceptance.
Food authenticity testing
Food globalization has meant the presence of authentic commodities, whether they be specialized varietal honey, olive oil, cheese, wine, or others from native or remote locations. The confirmation of such identity represents an emerging challenge. Efforts are being made for development of methods and solutions for high-resolution characterization of authentic species, and systems for comparison between batches and product lots.
- 1/2020 – Elemental analysis of foods is providing important details regarding product quality and authenticity.
- 2/2020 – Advanced ICP-MS techniques have proven capable to differentiate between greater than 50 unique spices from various countries, and different spices sources from a single country.
Food Quality Control
A major concern for the industry is food adulteration, or intentional exchange of high-quality labelled foods for lesser value substitutes. Mass spectrometry has transformed the industry by enabling untargeted analysis of food matrices using high-resolution accurate mass detection of foreign substances.
- 1/2020 – Stable isotope analysis is increasingly being used to measure unique isotope signatures, and to help detect low quality or fraudulent food additives.
- 2/2020 – FTIR Spectroscopy is proving increasingly capable and economical for remote testing for food additives and adulterants.
- 2/2020 – LC-MS and ICP-MS continue to be the gold standard platforms for low level detection and strict regulatory testing for adulterants.
Crop yield analysis
With a growing and aging global population comes the need for advanced approaches towards maximized crop yields and food production. Along these lines, new herbicides, fertilizers, and pesticides carry with them the requirement for detection and determination of safe levels. Non-targeted LC-MS detection coupled with compound library analysis and associated solutions offer advanced discovery and identification platforms to this end.
- 1/2020 – The emerging concept of gene-editing using CRISPR technologies in crop science offers promise in creating higher-yielding, drought-resistant, and pest-resistant, and potentially more nutritious food crops.
- 2/2020 – A recent study demonstrated CRISPR gene editing technologies can disable begomoviruses and make crop resistant to viral disease, potentially saving billions in annual crop losses.
Factors such as nutritional deficiencies and increased aging populations present challenges to food production and nutrient testing sources. Food research areas such as FOSHU (food for specified health uses) along with advanced LC-MS instruments and informatics solutions are leading the chase towards better nutrition and global health.
- 1/2020 - DNA Barcoding of food signatures in stool offers promise as a method for more accurately tracking patient dietary information, as an alternative to suboptimal self-reporting methods.
There is increasing interest and awareness in foods that cater to specialized diets. Gluten-free product demand continues to grow as does lactose, peanut allergen, cholesterol, and other “free” foods. The absence of sugars and the presence of sweeteners presents a further challenge in identification and monitoring. Advanced LC-MS technologies and solutions, including QTRAP, QTOF, and triple quadrupole platforms, are bringing power and depth in screening for widely varying compounds and chemicals.
- 1/2020 – Companies are using gene editing to produce new varieties of crops for healthier dietary applications.
- 1/2020 – Universal food testing standards, using technologies such as blockchain, may address the past and current food safety scandals affecting the industry.
Food Borne Illness and Microbial Testing
Microbial identification and confirmation
Methods for microbial identification are now designed for fast and cost-effective detection of food pathogens. These include: Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter spp, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, and others, which are cultured and detected by advanced colorimetric methods with a faster time to results than traditional methods.
- 1/2020 – An annual report by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) found that 1 in 3 foodborne illness outbreaks in the EU in 2018 were caused by Salmonella.
- 2/2020 – A recent study used machine-learning techniques to rapidly identify the animal source of specific Salmonella outbreaks.
Sample preparation for microbial analysis
Sample preparation is being met with automation solutions, permitting testing for multiple pathogens using specific reagents on a central platform. Testing automation solutions are providing value to high-throughput testing labs, expanding the reach and scope of available services.
- 2/2020 – Rapid pathogen testing tools, such as the Listeria PatternAlert assay, uses a fully automated workstation with turn-around times of 6 hours.
- 2/2020 – The growth of NGS technologies in food testing will allow increased multiplexing for rapid detection and quantification of a expanded range of pathogens.
Microbial DNA analysis and quantification
Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) instruments and kits are designed for fast, qualitative detection of major food and environmental pathogens. The kits testing a range of pathogens are typically compatible with a central instrument platform, with turn-around times of 12-24 hours.
- 1/2020 – High Pressure Pasteurization (HPP) is emerging an improved technique for microorganism removal with limited effects on food quality.
- 2/2020 – Advances in seafood pathogen testing include RT-PCR multiplex assays for the most common causative agents: Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella spp, and Listeria monocytogenes.
Environmental factors such as soil and water quality, and an array of chemical organic and inorganic contaminants sometimes found in these backgrounds, can have significant impacts on crop quality through absorption and bioaccumulation. Advanced LC-MS solutions are in use to screen water, soil, and other reservoirs for the presence of trace level contaminants, upstream of crop harvests and food production.