Cost efficiency is the main driver for chemical process development. As such, a pharmaceutical company considers each element of a drug synthesis route, weighing factors such as material costs and volume-time output (VTO) heavily. Material costs including raw materials, reagents, solvents, and all consumables, are essential in the selection of one synthetic route over another.
Yield, or the amount of product obtained in a chemical reaction, is a key consideration in process development. Although multiple strategies can be employed for optimization, process reaction yield plays a critical role in planning the correct route and fine-tuning reaction conditions. After a synthesis route is decided upon, a course of exhaustive optimization is taken in order to streamline each reaction step and maximize the product yield.
Volume-time output (VTO) is another important consideration associated with reactor occupancy for a given process. A costly reaction in terms of VTO is one in which reactor hours are excessive and/or the volume of reaction is suboptimal. A high VTO can be a detriment to the entire process development cycle — regardless of the material costs and yield.
Continuous flow processing technologies arose from technology advancements and the inherent challenges and limitations of conventional batch reactors. With the latter, parameters including time, temperature, order as well as type of reactant are exhaustively scouted. If more product is needed, larger vessels are employed inevitably leading to efficiency issues arising from process optimization challenges and vessel/process scaling. Loss of efficiency translates to limited yields, higher VTO, and higher costs.
Much progress has been made in the development and use of continuous flow reactors, particularly for small-scale chemical synthesis. The technology is gaining significant ground in pharmaceutical drug development, as the cost benefits in many cases outweigh the practical challenges. Continuous flow approaches may possess advantages over batch reactor processing in terms of safety, quality control, and throughput — all factors that play into cost efficiency of drug production.
A dominant attribute of batch reactor systems is versatility. A universal batch system, which involves a relatively basic setup, allows for many different operations to be conducted without the need for loss of containment or the need for individual reactor (re)design. This is particularly valuable in processes involving caustic or toxic reactants, or high potency products, in which breakdown would entail significant time and resource losses.
The containment vessel of a batch reactor allows for exchange of different agitation and heating or cooling mechanisms ideally suited for the reaction process. The shape, speed, and baffle arrangement can be specified — as well as use of alternative agitation techniques such as ultrasonic mixing. Heating and cooling systems serve to control thermal properties associated with chemical reactions, and as such, batch reactors can make use of a single external jacket, half coil jacket, or constant flux jacket, according to the specified requirements of the process.
With those considerations in mind, the choice of continuous over batch systems may come down to the particular reaction process(es) and the need for high throughput production and reliability — continuous flow systems excelling in both.
Batch reaction vessels may be advantageous for well-defined processes and may save considerable upfront costs in reactor design and fabrication. Of course, important considerations also include infrastructure, maintenance, staff, and operations.
Updated August 2021