Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroscopic technique for quantitative determination in elemental analysis. In AAS, samples are first heated to a gaseous state and then subjected to optical radiation (light) from which absorption is detected and quantitated. AAS is used in many chemical applications including clinical analysis of metals, toxicology, pharmaceutical manufacturing, environmental monitoring, forensics, and other areas. Important considerations include the type(s) and robustness of the atomizer, whether spectroscopic flame, electrothermal graphite tube, or other. The spectrophotometer may include high-resolution (CS AAS) or lower medium-resolution (LS AAS), depending on intended use.